Materials Science Division (MSD) of CSIR-National Aerospace Laboratories has been carrying out R&D work in diverse areas since its inception in 1966. The research work encompassed the entire spectrum of materials science: understanding basic structures of materials, structure-property relationship, processing of new materials, and study of behaviour of materials in application environment. The R&D activities of the division have undergone several changes to meet the emerging requirements time-to-time. Since the beginning, and over many years, the MSD carried out research in all classes of materials (metallic, ceramic, glass and polymeric). Some of these activities have grown, and for practical reasons, they are now dealt by independent divisions/units. In recent years, the MSD is focusing its R&D mainly in the fields of functional materials and smart structures, structural and bio-ceramics, aluminium alloys and polymers with an emphasis on products development. The research activities at the MSD resulted in the development of materials with improved properties, systems with new capabilities, and know-how for development of commercial technology. In addition to the R&D activities, the division has four decades’ of expertise in failure analysis and accident investigation, mostly pertaining to aircraft incidents and accidents. The division has state-of-the-art processing and characterization facilities to meet not only the internal requirements of the laboratory but also to cater to the needs of the other R&D organizations, academic institutes, and engineering industries.